Nystagmus is a condition where a person’s eyes involuntarily “jerk.” Alcohol and certain other drugs cause Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus. Of course, Nystagmus in and of itself does not increase the likelihood that someone is unable to drive; instead it only indicates the presence of alcohol and certain other drugs. And also, of course, people are able to drive safely with a multitude of drugs in their system. The question, therefore, is whether Nystagmus can reliably be determined to be caused by prohibited drugs and whether that may not rise to the level of impairment.
There are three types of Nystagmus:
- Vestibular Nystagmus. Vestibular Nystagmus is caused by movement or action to the vestibular system. Rotational Vestibular Nystagmus is caused when fluid in the inner ear is disturbed when a person is spun around. Post Rotational Vestibular Nystagmus occurs after a person stops spinning around. Caloric Vestibular Nystagmus occurs by changes in temperature. Positional Alcohol Vestibular Nystagmus (PAN) occurs when some fluid enters the body and changes the specific gravity of the blood in unequal concentrations between the blood and the vestibular system.
- Nystagmus from Neural Activity. Optokinetic Nystagmus results from fixating on an object that suddenly moves out of sight or from watching sharply contrasting moving images (for instance, watching strobe lights, rotating lights or rapidly moving traffic nearby). Physiological Nystagmus is natural and occurs in everyone, and very frequently. It is the most common type of Nystagmus. It produces very minor tremors and are generally impossible to be seen by the naked eye. Gaze Nystagmus occurs when the eye moves from center position. There are three types of Gaze Nystagmus, including Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus that occurs as the eyes move to the side, Vertical Gaze Nystagmus that occurs when eyes look upward at maximum elevation and Resting Nystagmus that occurs when the eyes look straight ahead.
- Nystagmus may also be caused by pathological disorders, including brain tumors, brain damage or particular diseases of the inner ear.